Which of the following is not one of the six key elements of organizational structure?

Question 1 of 40 2.5 Points
Which of the following is not one of the six key elements of organizational structure?
A. location of authority
B. departmentalization
C. work specialization
D. span of control
Question 2 of 40 2.5 Points
__________ is the key concept that underlies all bureaucracies.
A. A dual line of command
B. Standardization
C. Decentralization
D. Employee empowerment
Question 3 of 40 2.5 Points
Organizations following a(n. __________ strategy try to both minimize risk and maximize opportunity for profit, moving into new products or new markets only after innovators have proven their viability.
A. innovation
B. cost-cutting
C. imitation
D. organic
Question 4 of 40 2.5 Points
An organization pursuing a(n. __________ tightly controls costs, refrains from incurring unnecessary expenses, and cuts prices for basic products.
A. simple structure
B. imitation strategy
C. innovation strategy
D. cost-minimization strategy
Question 5 of 40 2.5 Points
You instruct the trainees to ask the client organization whether they have clearly defined procedures covering most of the jobs in the organization and lots of rules and policies. You want to help them understand the __________.
A. chain of command
B. degree of formalization
C. span of control
D. degree of departmentalization
Question 6 of 40 2.5 Points
The Acme Products case study notes that the senior management at Acme is concerned because the company takes so long to bring new products to the market. Which of the following approaches would your trainees identify as the most likely solution to this problem?
A. reducing the use of cross-functional work teams
B. decentralization of the decision-making process
C. decreased work specialization
D. decreased formalization of policies and procedures
Question 7 of 40 2.5 Points
The unity-of-command principle states that __________.
A. managers should limit their oversight to a maximum of 12 employees
B. managers should oversee one to four employees on average
C. an individual should be directly responsible to only one supervisor
D. managers should provide direction to their employees in a unified fashion
Question 8 of 40 2.5 Points
Which of the following is not part of an organization’s environment?
A. public pressure groups
B. customers
C. employees
D. competitors
Question 9 of 40 2.5 Points
Work specialization contributes to higher employee productivity, but at the price of __________.
A. reduced economies of scale
B. increased cost
C. reduced job satisfaction
D. restricted flow of information
Question 10 of 40 2.5 Points
Span of control is a key element of an organization’s structure. Which of the following key questions is addressed by this element?
A. On what basis will jobs be grouped together?
B. To whom do individuals and groups report?
C. To what degree will there be rules and regulations to direct employees and managers?
D. How many individuals can a manager efficiently and effectively direct?
Question 11 of 40 2.5 Points
Your trainees are given a case study concerning a local manufacturing firm called Acme Products. In assessing Acme’s organizational structure, your trainees notice that all of the company’s decisions are made by top management, with little or no input from lower-level personnel. The trainees most likely identify Acme as a __________ organization.
A. highly decentralized
B. highly formalized
C. highly departmentalized
D. highly centralized
Question 12 of 40 2.5 Points
Job candidates who prefer __________ are likely to seek out and take employment in mechanistic structures, and those who want __________ are more likely to end up in an organic structure.
A. predictability; autonomy
B. centralization; decentralization
C. job satisfaction; job security
D. simple structure; matrix structure
Question 13 of 40 2.5 Points
Which of the following is typically a characteristic of the mechanistic model of organization?
A. low formalization
B. rigid departmentalization
C. decentralized management
D. wide spans of control
Question 14 of 40 2.5 Points
Which of the following abilities is the primary strength of a bureaucracy?
A. to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient manner
B. to break the unity-of-command concept between departments
C. to facilitate coordination when the organization has complex activities
D. to save a great deal of money by eliminating hierarchical roles
Question 15 of 40 2.5 Points
The major advantage of a virtual organization is its __________.
A. decentralized structure
B. ability to enhance role clarity
C. flexibility
D. highly departmentalized structure
Question 16 of 40 2.5 Points
Which of the following statements is true about the simple structure?
A. It is very expensive to operate.
B. It is characterized by a high degree of departmentalization.
C. It becomes increasingly inadequate as an organization grows.
D. It is rigid.
Question 17 of 40 2.5 Points
Employee discretion is inversely related to __________.
A. complexity
B. formalization
C. specialization
D. departmentalization
Question 18 of 40 2.5 Points
Which of the following statements is true regarding a matrix structure?
A. It breaks the unity-of-command concept.
B. It cannot achieve economies of scale.
C. It reduces ambiguity about who reports to whom.
D. It prevents power struggles.
Question 19 of 40 2.5 Points
The right inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect orders to be obeyed is termed __________.
A. chain of command
B. authority
C. span of control
D. unity of command
Question 20 of 40 2.5 Points
Chain of command is a key element of an organization’s structure. Which of the following key questions is addressed by this element?
A. How many individuals can a manager efficiently and effectively direct?
B. To whom do individuals and groups report?
C. On what basis will jobs be grouped together?
D. To what degree are activities subdivided into separate jobs?
Question 21 of 40 2.5 Points
Alessio’s boss doesn’t care whether Alessio works at home, at the office, or from his beach house. All he cares about is that the project is completed on time, on budget, and with exemplary quality. Which characteristic of organizational culture best describes this aspect of Alessio’s job?
A. low risk-taking
B. high outcome orientation
C. high attention to detail
D. low aggressiveness
Question 22 of 40 2.5 Points
Which of the following steps could your supervisor take to best help you develop a commitment to your new company?
A. encourage you to work independently at first to learn the ropes
B. explain the rules and policies of the organization to you
C. encourage you to develop friendships within the organization
D. encourage you to look carefully at your own assumptions, which may be biased
Question 23 of 40 2.5 Points
Although diversity does present many opportunities for organizations, effective diversity management means also working to eliminate __________.
A. surface-level diversity
B. unfair discrimination
C. ethnic diversity
D. irrelevant biographical characteristics
Question 24 of 40 2.5 Points
The two major forms of workforce diversity are __________ and __________.
A. surface-level diversity; deep-level diversity
B. surface-level diversity; lateral-level diversity
C. organizational-level diversity; individual-level diversity
D. lateral-level diversity; deep-level diversity
Question 25 of 40 2.5 Points
__________ is the additional set of cultural characteristics that often overlap with race.
A. Ethnicity
B. Civilization
C. Diversity
D. Anthropology
Question 26 of 40 2.5 Points
Barbara is the lead editor for a small city newspaper. One of her advertising sales representatives, Mathew, was pulling in a lot of restaurant clients. Barbara realized that Mathew was quite knowledgeable about food and spoke quite elegantly while describing different dishes. She offered Mathew an opportunity to write a weekly restaurant review. Which aspect of creating a positive organization did Barbara utilize?
A. rewarding more than punishing
B. building on organization strengths
C. emphasizing individual growth
D. encouraging intense unbridled competition
Question 27 of 40 2.5 Points
To create a more ethical culture, management should do all of the following except __________.
A. serve as a visible role model
B. encourage unbridled competition
C. provide ethical training
D. communicate ethical expectations
Question 28 of 40 2.5 Points
__________ is a process that helps new employees adapt to the prevailing organizational culture.
A. Satisficing
B. Reciprocal interdependence
C. Socialization
D. Formalization
Question 29 of 40 2.5 Points
Nunya employees are allowed to dress informally. This is an example of a __________ through which organizational culture is transmitted.
A. story
B. ritual
C. material symbol
D. symbolic act
Question 30 of 40 2.5 Points
A strong culture should reduce employee turnover because it results in __________.
A. a highly centralized organization
B. narrow spans of control
C. cohesiveness and organizational commitment
D. a highly formalized organization
Question 31 of 40 2.5 Points
__________ can be defined as actions taken by representatives of the organization who deny equal opportunity to perform or provide unequal rewards for performance.
A. Intimidation
B. Exclusive practices
C. Sexual harassment
D. Discriminatory policies or practices
Question 32 of 40 2.5 Points
__________ also leaves qualified job candidates out of initial hiring and promotions.
A. Random segregation
B. Surface-level segregation
C. Unfair discrimination
D. Surface-level diversity
Question 33 of 40 2.5 Points
_________ is defined as the biological heritage people use to identify themselves.
A. Race
B. Diversity
C. Culture
D. Civilization
Question 34 of 40 2.5 Points
The information that you receive during the interviewing and hiring process is a part of the __________ stage of employee socialization.
A. preencounter
B. prearrival
C. encounter
D. metamorphosis
Question 35 of 40 2.5 Points
Identify the correct order of the socialization process.
A. encounter, metamorphosis, post-encounter
B. prearrival, arrival, evaluation
C. prearrival, arrival, post-arrival
D. prearrival, encounter, metamorphosis
Question 36 of 40 2.5 Points
During the __________ stage, a new employee compares her expectations with the realities of the organization.
A. prearrival
B. encounter
C. metamorphosis
D. post-arrival
Question 37 of 40 2.5 Points
Stability is one of the seven primary characteristics that capture the essence of an organization’s culture. It indicates the degree to which __________.
A. organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth
B. management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them
C. management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization
D. work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals
Question 38 of 40 2.5 Points
The phrase __________ can refer to any characteristic that makes people different from one another.
A. lateral diversity
B. individual diversity
C. organic diversity
D. workplace diversity
Question 39 of 40 2.5 Points
Phyllis works for a corporation that recently fired three top managers who were caught using the company credit cards to lavishly furnish their offices and even purchase furniture that was found in their homes. Which method of maintaining an ethical culture is Phyllis’s company pursuing?
A. serving as a visible role model
B. communicating ethical expectations
C. providing ethical training
D. visibly punishing unethical acts
Question 40 of 40 2.5 Points
Consistency of behavior is an asset to an organization when the organization __________.
A. operates in a stable environment
B. encourages innovation and risk-taking
C. is highly departmentalized
D. has an employee-oriented culture

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