RES 351 FINAL EXAM

A _____ scale is a scale that scores an object or property without making a direct comparison to another object or property.

 

ranking

 

rating

 

categorization

 

sorting

 

Northwest Airlines applied mathematical models to determine which customers in its database were currently responsible for most of its profitability and which customers were not currently profitable but had similar characteristics to the most profitable customers. Northwest Airlines utilized _____ to identify these customers.

 

computer programming

 

customer relationships management

 

data mining

 

data warehousing

 

 

To be categorized as a customer, an individual must have a history of shopping at the establishment at least twice before the start of the study with expenditures of more than $10. This is an example of _____.

 

an operational definition

 

a hypothetical construct

 

a dictionary definition

 

a conceptual scheme

 

 

The goal of ethics in research is to _____.

 

ensure research sponsors fulfill their legal obligations

 

ensure that no one is harmed

 

protect researchers from legal liability

 

identify what behavior is appropriate

 

What type of data is produced by simple category scales?

 

Nominal

 

Interval

 

Ordinal

 

Ratio

 

The use of a control group in experimentation _____.

 

serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation

 

provides for the manipulation of the independent variable

 

allows for discovery of the average effect of the independent variable in different situations

 

minimizes the cost of experimentation

 

Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using cross-tabulations?

 

What happens to sales when prices drop?

 

What percentage of men and women prefer Brand A over Brand B?

 

What percentage of residents shop at the local grocery store?

 

Is brand loyalty related to brand image?

 

Minute Maid sees research as the fundamental first step in any business decision, and it created proprietary methods for conducting research. At what level of the hierarchy of business decision makers does Minute Maid operate?

 

Foundation tier

 

Top tier

 

Middle tier

 

Base tier

 

James is entering data on client gender. Because the values entered reflect male or female, this variable is _____.

 

continuous

 

discrete

 

dichotomous

 

ratio-scaled

 

In the Southeast, the potato chip market share held by the Lays brand is 46%. This is an example of _____.

 

an explanatory hypothesis

 

a research question

 

a descriptive hypothesis

 

a relational hypothesis

 

If a difference is not caused only by random sampling fluctuations, it is said to have _____.

 

substantive significance

 

statistical significance

 

resistance

 

reasonable doubt

 

Which variable in an experiment is the variable expected to be affected by the manipulation?

 

Extraneous variable

 

Independent variable

 

Moderating variable

 

Dependent variable

 

The measure of deviation from the mean such that cases stretch toward one tail or the other is called _____.

 

ku

 

kurtosis

 

platykurtic

 

skewness

 

The goal of a formal study is to _____.

 

provide insight

 

discover future research tasks

 

expand understanding of a topic

 

test hypotheses

 

Which of the following is true of quantitative research?

 

Data analysis is ongoing during the project

 

Sample sizes are generally small

 

Results are generalizable

 

It uses a nonprobability sampling method

The list of elements in a population from which the sample is drawn is known as the _____.

 

sampling frame

 

population extent

 

database

 

sampling base

 

The process of ensuring the accuracy of data and their conversion from raw form into classified forms appropriate for analysis is called _____.

 

data measurement

 

data entry

 

data preparation

 

coding

 

Which of the following questions is considered first when discussing a management dilemma?

 

What is the recommended course of action?

 

What does the manager need to know to choose the best alternative from the available sources of action?

 

What symptoms cause management concern?

 

How can management eliminate negative symptoms?

 

Which type of management question asks what do we want to achieve?

 

Evaluation of solutions

 

Choice of purpose

 

Control

 

Troubleshooting

 

What is the first step in conducting an experiment?

 

Control the experimental environment

 

Select relevant variables

 

Choose the experimental design

 

Specify the level(s) of the treatment

 

The fundamental weakness in the research process is _____.

 

identifying a flawed sampling frame

 

incorrectly defining the research question

 

misdefining the target population

 

failing to identify all relevant secondary information

 

_____ occurs when the participants are told only part of the truth or when the truth is fully compromised.

 

Coercion

 

Informed consent

 

Debriefing

 

Deception

 

The standard error of the estimate is a type of measure of _____.

 

significance

 

accuracy

 

central tendency

 

standard deviation

 

Data originating from studies that are conducted by others and created for a purpose different from the purpose of the study for which the data are being reviewed are called _____ data.

 

statistical

 

secondary

 

quantitative

 

primary

 

_____ is the extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what we wish to measure.

 

Significance

 

Practicality

 

Validity

 

Reliability

 

The process of stating the basic dilemma and then developing other questions by progressively breaking down the original question into more specific ones is called the _____.

 

management question

 

research question

 

management dilemma

 

management-research question hierarchy

 

_____ involves assigning numbers or other symbols to answers so that the responses can be grouped into a limited number of categories.

 

Editing

 

Data entry

 

Measurement

 

Coding

 

Qualitative research seeks to _____ theory while quantitative research _____ it.

 

apply; builds

 

test; understands

 

examine; interprets

 

build; tests

 

_____ are summary descriptors of variables of interest in the population.

 

Sample statistics

 

Standard errors

 

Systematic estimates

 

Population parameters

 

An increase in hours of television viewing leads to increases in the sales of snack foods. This is an example of a _____.

 

descriptive hypothesis

 

research question

 

causal hypothesis

 

correlational hypothesis

 

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