A _____ scale is a scale that scores an object or property without making a direct comparison to another object or property.










Northwest Airlines applied mathematical models to determine which customers in its database were currently responsible for most of its profitability and which customers were not currently profitable but had similar characteristics to the most profitable customers. Northwest Airlines utilized _____ to identify these customers.


computer programming


customer relationships management


data mining


data warehousing



To be categorized as a customer, an individual must have a history of shopping at the establishment at least twice before the start of the study with expenditures of more than $10. This is an example of _____.


an operational definition


a hypothetical construct


a dictionary definition


a conceptual scheme



The goal of ethics in research is to _____.


ensure research sponsors fulfill their legal obligations


ensure that no one is harmed


protect researchers from legal liability


identify what behavior is appropriate


What type of data is produced by simple category scales?










The use of a control group in experimentation _____.


serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation


provides for the manipulation of the independent variable


allows for discovery of the average effect of the independent variable in different situations


minimizes the cost of experimentation


Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using cross-tabulations?


What happens to sales when prices drop?


What percentage of men and women prefer Brand A over Brand B?


What percentage of residents shop at the local grocery store?


Is brand loyalty related to brand image?


Minute Maid sees research as the fundamental first step in any business decision, and it created proprietary methods for conducting research. At what level of the hierarchy of business decision makers does Minute Maid operate?


Foundation tier


Top tier


Middle tier


Base tier


James is entering data on client gender. Because the values entered reflect male or female, this variable is _____.










In the Southeast, the potato chip market share held by the Lays brand is 46%. This is an example of _____.


an explanatory hypothesis


a research question


a descriptive hypothesis


a relational hypothesis


If a difference is not caused only by random sampling fluctuations, it is said to have _____.


substantive significance


statistical significance




reasonable doubt


Which variable in an experiment is the variable expected to be affected by the manipulation?


Extraneous variable


Independent variable


Moderating variable


Dependent variable


The measure of deviation from the mean such that cases stretch toward one tail or the other is called _____.










The goal of a formal study is to _____.


provide insight


discover future research tasks


expand understanding of a topic


test hypotheses


Which of the following is true of quantitative research?


Data analysis is ongoing during the project


Sample sizes are generally small


Results are generalizable


It uses a nonprobability sampling method

The list of elements in a population from which the sample is drawn is known as the _____.


sampling frame


population extent




sampling base


The process of ensuring the accuracy of data and their conversion from raw form into classified forms appropriate for analysis is called _____.


data measurement


data entry


data preparation




Which of the following questions is considered first when discussing a management dilemma?


What is the recommended course of action?


What does the manager need to know to choose the best alternative from the available sources of action?


What symptoms cause management concern?


How can management eliminate negative symptoms?


Which type of management question asks what do we want to achieve?


Evaluation of solutions


Choice of purpose






What is the first step in conducting an experiment?


Control the experimental environment


Select relevant variables


Choose the experimental design


Specify the level(s) of the treatment


The fundamental weakness in the research process is _____.


identifying a flawed sampling frame


incorrectly defining the research question


misdefining the target population


failing to identify all relevant secondary information


_____ occurs when the participants are told only part of the truth or when the truth is fully compromised.




Informed consent






The standard error of the estimate is a type of measure of _____.






central tendency


standard deviation


Data originating from studies that are conducted by others and created for a purpose different from the purpose of the study for which the data are being reviewed are called _____ data.










_____ is the extent to which a measurement tool actually measures what we wish to measure.










The process of stating the basic dilemma and then developing other questions by progressively breaking down the original question into more specific ones is called the _____.


management question


research question


management dilemma


management-research question hierarchy


_____ involves assigning numbers or other symbols to answers so that the responses can be grouped into a limited number of categories.




Data entry






Qualitative research seeks to _____ theory while quantitative research _____ it.


apply; builds


test; understands


examine; interprets


build; tests


_____ are summary descriptors of variables of interest in the population.


Sample statistics


Standard errors


Systematic estimates


Population parameters


An increase in hours of television viewing leads to increases in the sales of snack foods. This is an example of a _____.


descriptive hypothesis


research question


causal hypothesis


correlational hypothesis


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